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鵝媽媽的童謠(Mother Goose)


最近在狂看書,看到一個很不童謠的童謠.好奇之下就去baidu了一下.
baidu百科上的序言竟然和我的情况一模一樣….奊暥帤柤傪擖椡偟□偔偩偝偄

概括來說,baidu上的內容就是 ::

一、什么是鹅妈妈童谣 (Mother Goose)

鹅妈妈童谣(Mother Goose)是英国民间流传时间相当久的童谣集,内容典雅,有幽默故事、游戏歌曲、儿歌、谜语、催眠曲、字母歌、数数歌、绕口令、动物歌等,是英、美人士从孩童时代就耳熟能详的儿歌.

二、起源

一般有两种说法,第一是源自法国作家 Charles Perrault 在 1697 年写的故事集 Contes de ma mère l’Oye(Tales of My Mother Goose),之后由英国人收集编辑而成。
不过因为大部份的歌词为了顺口的缘故,句末都会押韵,应该用十四世纪的发音才对,因此又有从十四世纪开始流传的说法。

以上可以忽略,重點是以下::

鹅妈妈童谣中残酷句子的起源

鹅妈妈童谣有少数歌词内容相当的血腥,其最大的原因,即是由于东、西方对死亡的态度不同,东方人非常避讳谈到「死」这个字眼或相关话题;西方人则相反,他们不畏惧谈到关于死亡,甚至对于生死有关的教育皆是从小教起。不过鹅妈妈童谣中的歌词,也可以从18 世纪的英国的时代背景来看。有些歌词是反映人心动乱、生活环境差的现实,把在穷困的时代皆常见的角色的故事写进童谣中,或许现在的人们看了会无法接受,但那却是一个历史的悲哀。

上面這段解釋太官方了,我看著彆扭.總之一句話就是這是工業革命時期英國貧民對痛苦生活的抱怨,對上位者的不滿,也就是比河蟹國祖先直接了點. 值得一提的是儘管很多版都沒有收錄,但這些童謠却爲很多懸疑偵探作品提供了靈感和題材…果然藝術是相通的啊~
除了在書上看到的,又找了幾篇殘酷的”童謠”po上來,因爲我覺得還蠻有趣!!!奊暥帤柤傪擖椡偟□偔偩偝偄

Who Killed Cock Robin?
Who killed Cock Robin?
“I,” said the sparrow,
“With my little bow and arrow,
I killed Cock Robin.”
Who saw him die?
“I,” said the fly,
“With my little eye,
I saw him die.”
Who caught his blood?
“I,” said the fish,
“With my little dish,
I caught his blood.”
Who’ll make his shroud?
“I,” said the beetle,
“With my thread and needle.
I’ll make his shroud.”
Who’ll carry the torch?
“I,” said the linnet,
“I’ll come in a minute,
I’ll carry the torch.”
Who’ll be the clerk?
“I,” said the lark,
“If it’s not in the dark,
I’ll be the clerk.”
Who’ll dig his grave?
“I,” said the owl,
“With my spade and trowel
I’ll dig his grave.”
Who’ll be the parson?
“I,” said the rook,
“With my little book,
I’ll be the parson.”
Who’ll be chief mourner?
“I,” said the dove,
“I mourn for my love,
I’ll be chief mourner.”
Who’ll sing a psalm?
“I,” said the thrush,
“As I sit in a bush,
I’ll sing a psalm.”
Who’ll carry the coffin?
“I,” said the kite,
“If it’s not in the night,
I’ll carry the coffin.”
Who’ll toll the bell?
“I,” said the bull,
“Because I can pull,
I’ll toll the bell.”
All the birds of the air
Fell sighing and sobbing,
When they heard the bell toll
For poor Cock Robin.
NOTICE
To all it concerns,
This notice apprises,
The Sparrow’s for trial,
At next bird assizes.

谁杀了知更鸟?
麻雀说,是我,
我杀了知更鸟,
用我的弓和箭。
谁看到他死了?
苍蝇说,是我,
我看到他死了,
用我的小眼睛。
谁取走他的血?
鱼说,是我,
我取走他的血,
用我的小碟子。
谁将来做寿衣?
甲虫说,是我,
我将来做寿衣,
用我的针和线。
谁将来挖坟墓?
猫头鹰说,是我,
我将来挖坟墓,
用我的镐和铲子。
谁将来当牧师?
乌鸦说,是我,
我将来当牧师,
用我的小册子。
谁将来当执事?
云雀说,是我,
若不是在暗处,
我将来当执事。
谁将来拿火炬?
红雀说,是我,
我将拿着它片刻,
我将来拿火炬。
谁将当主祭?
鸽子说,是我,
我将当主祭,
为我的爱哀悼。
谁将来抬棺?
鸢说,是我,
若不经过夜晚,
我将来抬棺。
谁将来扶棺?
鹪鹩说,是我们,
和公鸡与母鸡,
我们将扶棺。
谁将来唱赞美诗?
画眉说,是我,
当他埋入灌木中,
我将来唱赞美诗。
谁将来敲丧钟?
牛说,是我,
因为我可以拉钟,
所以,再会了,知更鸟。
当丧钟为那可怜的知更鸟响起,
空中所有的鸟都悲叹哭泣。
启事
所有的关系人,
这启事通知,
下回鸟审判,
受审者是麻雀。

此首「谁杀了知更鸟」也有人翻做「知更鸟之死」,是鹅妈妈童谣中相当著名的一首,国外的鹅妈妈童谣集一般皆会收录,但来到国内,国内出版的鹅妈妈童谣集几乎不会收录这首「Who killed led Cock Robin?」。此首歌旋律轻快且优美,也是许多英国小孩朗朗上口的一首童谣。
「Who killed led Cock Robin?」内容描述知更鸟(Cock Robin)原本被天上所有的鸟儿喜爱,最后却在小鸟审判(bird assizes)中死亡的故事。看似荒诞的童话故事,尤其是最后”下回的受审者”竟然是童谣一开始杀了知更鸟的麻雀,杀人者亦会受到审判,使得这首童谣更添加了因果循环的深层含意。
也有不少的推理小说或推理漫画喜欢引用这首「Who killed led Cock Robin?」,如 S.S.范达因在 1928 年出版的著名推理小说“The Bishop Murder Case”(中译为主教杀人事件)中即引用了这首与其余两首鹅妈妈童谣。

——————————–
There was a crooked man
There was a crooked man, and he walked a crooked mile,
He found a crooked sixpence against a crooked stile;
He bought a crooked cat, which caught a crooked mouse,
And they all lived together in a little crooked house.

一個扭曲的男人,走了一哩扭曲的路。
手拿扭曲的六便士,踏上扭曲的台階,
買一隻歪歪扭扭的貓兒,貓兒抓歪歪扭扭的老鼠。
他們一起住歪歪扭扭的小屋。

此首童谣很明显的描述一名精神失常的男子,他与他身边的事物皆是「扭曲」的,歌词描述的十分贴近现实精神疾病患者的模样,以第三人称的角度,来看待他的生活与身边的事物,以「扭曲」代表与正常人生活相反的一面。
在黑暗的时代中,压力过大以致于精神失常或发疯的人不在少数,以现代来说,患有精神疾病的人其实也不少,他们的生活是「扭曲」的,在我们的眼里看起来他们也是「扭曲」的一群人,所以用「crook」(扭曲)来连贯这整首歌词是非常贴切的。

———————————–
Lizzie Borden Took An Axe
Lizzie Borden took an axe,
Hit her father forty whacks.
When she saw what she had done,
She hit her mother forty-one.

麗茲玻頓拿起斧頭,
砍了爸爸四十下。
当她意识到她做了甚麼,
她砍她妈妈四十一下。

此首令人发指的童谣「Lizzie Borden Took An Axe」,其实是由真实的故事改编而成的。
1892 年 8 月 4 日午前,瀑布河城银行家安德鲁波登(Andrew Borden)33 岁的女儿莉琪(Lizzie Borden, 1860~1927)突然对自家女仆呼喊,惊叫自己的父亲遭人用斧头砍死在屋内;医师、邻居等人闻讯陆续赶到,众人进一步发现莉琪的继母也被利斧击毙于二楼。尽管莉琪波登因为涉嫌重大而被逮捕,历经一年多的侦讯审判,司法做出了无罪开释的结论,引起舆论哗然。
案子审理期间法庭内外都有相当激烈的推理、辩论,有不少人直觉传闻和继母一直处得不好的莉琪有行凶动机,然而却缺乏有力的犯案证据以及目击证人;法庭上淑女形象的莉琪波登看起来无助而纤弱,赢得全以男性组成的陪审团(当时美国女性尚无参政权)同情,在一个多小时的讨论之后,认定其人并非凶手。若不是莉琪杀了自己的父母,那凶手又是谁?对于这个案件的调查研究,一百多年来未曾间断,各种耳语、谣传更激发出无数文学艺术,甚至是纪念工艺品的创意;发生命案的房子,现在是瀑布河城能提供游客用餐,甚至居住的知名旅游景点。
不管真相如何,在充满黑色趣味的鹅妈妈童谣渲染下(实际上两位被害者总共仅被砍二十九下),大众对莉琪波登的偏见更加根深蒂固,她的名字早已成了残酷杀手的代名词,多数相关的小说、电影作品,直接点名莉琪波登是凶手,并且在加油添醋的情节中,让她受到报应。
但实际上被宣告无罪的波登和姊姊共同继承父亲遗产,卖掉凶宅,远离瀑布河城的是非圈。波登后半辈子醉心于戏剧与文学,身后大笔财产捐赠予防止虐待动物协会(Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals);爱护动物与凶残杀手两种截然不同的形象,让莉琪波登的生平,更增传奇色彩。

————————————-
Ten little nigger boys
Ten little nigger boys went out to dine;
One choked his little self, and then there were nine.
Nine little nigger boys sat up very late;
One overslept himself, and then there were eight.
Eight little nigger boys travelling in Devon;
One said he’d stay there, and then there were seven.
Seven little nigger boys chopping up sticks;
One chopped himself in half, and then there were six.
Six little nigger boys playing with a hive;
A bumble-bee stung one, and then there were five.
Five little nigger boys going in for law;
One got in chancery, and then there were four.
Four little nigger boys going out to sea;
A red herring swallowed one, and then there were three.
Three little nigger boys walking in the Zoo;
A big bear bugged one, and then there were two.
Two little nigger boys sitting in the sun;
One got frizzled up, and then there was one.
One little nigger boy living all alone;
He got married, and then there were none

十個小黑人出外用膳;
一個噎死還剩九個。
九個小黑人熬夜到很晚;
一個睡過頭還剩八個。
八個小黑人在到丹文遊玩;
一個說要留在那兒還剩七個。
七個小黑人在砍柴;
一個把自己砍成兩半還剩六個。
六個小黑人玩蜂窩;
一隻黃蜂叮住一個還剩五個。
五個小黑人進入法院;
一個被留下還剩四個。
四個小黑人到海邊;
一條紅鯡魚吞下一個還剩三個。
三個小黑人走進動物園裡;
一隻大熊抓走一個還剩兩個。
兩個小黑人坐在太陽下;
一個熱死只剩一個。
一個小黑人覺得好寂寞;
他上吊後一個也不剩。

此首童谣十个小黑人(Ten little nigger boys went out to dine)也是鹅妈妈童谣中非常著名的一首 内容看似相当荒唐 但也十分有趣 可是现在这首童谣的最后一句”He went and hanged himself, and then there were none.”可能因不适合儿童,所以时常改成”He got married, and then there were none.”(他结婚后一个也不剩)。
歌词描述原有十个小黑人,经过了许多波折,使得原本在一起的他们最后只剩一个人,剩下的那个小黑人觉得非常寂寞,便上吊自杀了。这也可以喻为原本为劳工阶级的一群人,在中产阶级、资本主义残酷的压迫后,渐渐的凋零,到了最后一个也不留。
知名的推理小说家,拥有”谋杀天后”之称的 Agatha?Christie(阿嘉莎.克莉丝蒂),也曾以这首童谣为背景写出了〝And Then There Were None〞(中译名为一个都不留)此本小说。

——————————-
Solomon Grundy
Solomon Grundy,
Born on a Monday,
Christened on Tuesday,
Married on Wednesday,
Took ill on Thursday,
Worse on Friday,
Died on Saturday,
Buried on Sunday.
This is the end
Of Solomon Grundy.

所罗门.格兰蒂
月曜日 出生
火曜日 受洗礼
水曜日 结婚
木曜日 得病
金曜日 病加重
土曜日 死去
日曜日 被埋在土里
这就是所罗门.格兰蒂的一生

—————————————–
My mother has killed me
My mother has killed me,
My father is eating me,
My brothers and sisters sit under the table,
Picking up my bones,
And they bury them
under the cold marble stones.

我的媽媽殺了我,
我的爸爸在吃我,
我的兄弟和我的姊妹坐在餐桌底,
撿起我的骨頭,埋了它們,
埋到冰冷的石碑下。

——————————————
When a good King Arthur rule this land
When a good King Arthur rule this land,
He was a goodly king;
He stole three pecks of barley-meal To make a bag-pudding.
A bag-pudding the king did make,
And stuffed it well with plums;
And in it put great lumps of fat As big as my two thumbs.
The king and queen did eat thereof,
And noblemen beside;
And what they could not eat that night,
The queen next morning fried.

治理这个国家的亚瑟王──
伟大的亚瑟王啊!
为了要做布丁,
他偷了三袋麦片──
国王他要做布丁来玩,
放进了很多葡萄乾,
再放进两块大拇指粗的奶油。
国王、王妃吃了布丁──
身边的贵族们也吃了
那天晚上他们什么也没吃
第二天早上皇后被油煎了

—————————
What are little boys made of
What are little boys made of ?
Frogs and snails
And puppy-dogs’ tails,
What are little girls made of ?
Suger and spice
And all that’s nice.

小男孩是由什么做的?
青蛙和蜗牛
还有小狗的尾巴
小女孩是由什么做的?
糖和香料
都是那吹拿篮醚健?

—————————–
Little Miss Muffet
Little Miss Muffet
Sat on a tuffet,
Eating her curds and whey;
There came a big spider,
Who sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffet

小玛菲特小姐
坐在垫子上
吃着乳酪
然后来了一只蜘蛛
坐在她旁边
吓跑了玛菲特小姐

—————————
Georgie Porgie
Georgie Porgie,
pudding and pie,
Kissed the girls and made them cry;
When the boys came out to play,
Georgie Porgie ran away.

乔治?怕死
布丁和派
亲吻女孩惹她们哭
男孩们来了
乔治?怕死就跑了

————————
Simple Simon
Simple Simon met a pieman
Going to the fair;
Says Simple Simon to the pieman,
“Let me taste your ware.”
Says the pieman to Simple Simon,
“Show me first your penny.”
Says Simple Simon to the pieman,
“Indeed I have not any.”
He went to catch a dickey bird,
And thought he could not fail,
Because he’d got a little salt,
To put upon his tail.
He went to take a bird’s nest,
Was built upon a bough;
The branch gave way and Simon fell
Into a dirty slough.
He went to shoot a wild duck,
But wild duck flew away;
Say Simon, I can’t hit him,
Because he will not stay.”
Simple Simon went a-fishing,
For to catch a whale;
All the water he had got
Was in his mother’s pail.
Simple Simon went a-hunting,
For to catch a hare;
He rode an ass about the streets,
But couldn’t find one there.
He went for to eat honey,
Out of the mustard pot;
He bit his tongue until he cried,
That was all the good he got.
He went to ride a spotted cow
That had a little calf;
She threw him down upon the ground,
Which made the people laugh.
Once Simon made a great snowball,
And brought it in to roast;
He laid it down before the fire,
And soon the ball was lost.
He went to slide upon the ice
Before the ice would bear;
Then he plunged in above his knees,
Which made poor Simon stare.
He washed himself with blacking ball,
Because he had no soap;
Then said unto his mother,
“I’m a beauty now, I hope.”
Simple Simon went to look
If plums grew on a thistle;
He pricked his fingers very much,
Which made poor Simon whistle.
He went for water in a sieve,
But soon it all ran through.
And now poor Simple Simon
Bids you all adieu.

无知的西蒙遇见一个卖派的商人
正要赶往集市
无知的西蒙对卖派的商人说:
“让我尝尝你的派吧 ”
商人对无知的西蒙说:
“先让我看看你的便士吧”
无知的西蒙对商人说:
“其实我一分也没有”
他去抓小鸟
认为自己不会失败
因为他有一把盐
撒在它的尾巴上
他去取小鸟的窝
那个筑在一根大树枝上的鸟窝
树枝断了,无知的西蒙掉下来
落在脏脏的泥沼里
他去打野鸭
但是野鸭飞走了
西蒙说,我打不中它
因为他不呆在那里
无知的西蒙去钓鱼
想要钓一条鲸鱼
然而他所有的水
都在妈妈的水桶里
无知的西蒙去打猎
想要打中一只野兔
他骑着驴穿过街道
那里找不到一只野兔
他去吃蜂蜜
从一只餐桌上的芥末罐子
他咬着自己的舌头直到哭出来
这就是他吃到的全部
他去骑头花斑牛
可母牛还有头小牛
母牛甩他在地上
惹的人们笑哈哈
一次西蒙做了个大雪球
把它带回来烤一烤
把它放在火前面
雪球一会儿不见了
他到冰上去滑冰
在冰还能支撑前
然后他把膝盖插到冰里面
可怜的西蒙睁大了眼
他用黑色的鞋油来洗澡
因为他没有肥皂
然后他对妈妈说:
“我想现在自己很漂亮吧”
无知的西蒙去赏花
李子长在蓟上
手被刺伤了好几次
可怜的西蒙大叫着
他坐在笼子里到了水里
但是很快就沉了下去
可怜而又无知的西蒙啊
永远地再见了

—————————–
BLACK SHEEP
Baa, baa, black sheep,
Have you any wool ?
Yes, sir, yes, sir, Three bags full;
One for the master,
And one for the dame,
And one for the little boy who lives down the lane

咩~咩~
黑羊啊黑羊
你的身上可有羊毛
有啊有啊
有三袋
一袋给主人
一袋给夫人
还有一袋给路边哭泣的小小少爷

—————————————-
There was an old man
There was an old man
And he had a calf
And that’s half
He took him out of the stall
And put his on the wall
And that’s all

从前有个老人
他养了一头小牛
现在说到一半
老人把小牛带出牛舍
再把它系在墙上
这就是全部

—————————–
Three Blind Mice
Three blind mice! See how they run!
They all ran after the farmer’s wife,
Who cut off their tails with a carving knife.
Did you ever see such a thing in your life
As three blind mice?

三隻瞎眼的老鼠!看牠們跑的方式!
牠們追著農夫的老婆,
她用餐刀切了牠們的尾巴。
你這輩子見過像這樣的東西嗎?
和三隻瞎眼的老鼠一樣。

———————————–
Sing A Song of Sixpence
Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocket full of rye;
Four-and-twenty blackbirds
Baked in a pie!
When the pie was opened
The birds began to sing;
Was not that a dainty dish
To set before the king?
The king was in his counting-house,
Counting out his money;
The queen was in the parlor,
Eating bread and honey.
The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes;
When down came a blackbird
And snapped off her nose.

唱一首六便士之歌,
袋子裡裝滿黑麥;
二十四隻黑畫眉,
被放在派裡面烤!
當派被剝開,
畫眉開始唱歌;
那可不是放在國王桌前,
十分可口的一餐嗎?
國王在帳房數錢;
王后在客廳吃麵包蜂蜜。
女僕在花園曬衣;
一隻黑畫眉飛來,
啄走了她的鼻子。

————————–
Humpty Dumpty
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall
All the king’s horse And all the king’s men
Couldn’t put Humpty Dumpty together again

蛋在断崖之上孵着,
孵着孵着掉下来了,
就算聚集了国王所有的马,
就算聚集了国王所有的臣子,
蛋也不能再恢复原来的样子…

—————————————
There Was A Man, A Very Untidy Man
There was a man, a very untidy man,
Whose fingers could nowhere be found
to put in his tomb.
He had rolled his head far underneath the bed;
He had left legs and arms lying all over the room.

死了一个男人,
一个没出息的男人,
懒得动手把他埋在坟墓里。
头滚落在床下,
四肢散乱的在房间里


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